LITERATURE OVERVIEW: See our list of recently published articles of interest.
|How articles are selected
ILLUSTRATION: Centre for Research on Discretion and Paternalism / MGalloway, Wikimedia Commons
ADDED IN MAY 2020
Smith et al: Review of Benefits and Risks for Children in Open Adoption Arrangements
Following changes to our country’s child protection legislation in 2015, adoptees in Spain have the possibility of post‐adoption contact with their birth families. This review aims to provide social workers with a resource to guide their decision‐making by evaluating both the benefits and risks associated with open adoption. Of the 26 studies reviewed, 22 reported benefits and 8 discussed risks. Overall, contact with birth families is more commonly associated with positive than with negative outcomes for the adoptee, especially when the adoptive family is capable of communicative openness. The results support current policy on open adoptions, but in line with previous research, we emphasize the need for contact arrangements to be decided on a case‐by‐case basis and to be monitored.
- Smith, Megan, González‐Pasarín, Lucía, Salas, María D, and Bernedo, Isabel M. “Review of Benefits and Risks for Children in Open Adoption Arrangements.” Child & Family Social Work. 0 (2020): Child & Family Social Work. , 2020, (0). https://doi.org/10.1111/cfs.12753
Hjern et al: Outcomes in adulthood of adoption after long-term foster care: A sibling study
Prior research has reported a positive impact of adoption on developmental outcomes for children with experience of foster care. To inform decisions about permanent care arrangements, we used Swedish national population registers to create a sibling population consisting of 194 children born 1973–1982 who had been in out-of-home care (OHC) at least 5 years before adolescence but were never adopted (50% boys) and their 177 maternal birth siblings who also had been in OHC at least 5 years before their teens but were adopted before adolescence (52.5% boys). We constructed 14 outcome variables spanning social, educational, and health outcomes in adult age with information from Swedish national registers. Based on multilevel logistic random effects and fixed effects regression models (supplemented with a sensitivity analysis assessing the potential impact of unobserved confounding), results showed that adopted siblings tended to have considerably better outcomes in adult age in educational achievement, income, criminality, disability, and suicidality. Outcomes related to mental health and substance abuse were more similar, but differences pointed in the same direction. Implications for child welfare policy and practice are discussed.
- Hjern, A., Vinnerljung, B., & Brännström, L. (2019). Outcomes in adulthood of adoption after long-term foster care: A sibling study. Developmental Child Welfare, 1(1), 61–75. https://doi.org/10.1177/2516103218815702
ADDED IN APRIL 2020
Kuruppu, Jacqueline, et al.: Tipping the scales: factors influencing the decision to report child maltreatment in primary care.
Child maltreatment (CM) is an important public health issue linked to significant physical and mental health complications across the life span. Given the association between CM and health, general practitioners (GPs) and primary care nurses (PNs) are wellplaced to identify and respond to this issue and are mandated to report suspected CM in many jurisdictions. Research has found that primary care doctors and nurses need support when responding to CM. This scoping review sought to answer the following question: What factors influence GPs and PNs decision to report CM when fulfilling their mandatory reporting duty? By exploring these factors, areas where support is needed were pinpointed. A systematic search was run across four databases: Medline (Ovid), PsycINFO, Embase, and CINAHL. Articles that reported on studies conducted in a location that had mandatory reporting legislation specific to CM and had a study population sampled from primary care were included in analysis. Thirty-three articles met the inclusion criteria. This review found that four principal factors influenced the decision to report CM: personal threshold of suspicion of abuse, relationship with the family, faith in the child protection system, and education and discussion. We conclude that improving the support and training to address these four areas may be beneficial for GPs and PNs in responding to CM.
- Kuruppu, Jacqueline, et al. “Tipping the scales: factors influencing the decision to report child maltreatment in primary care.” Trauma, Violence, & Abuse (2020): DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1524838020915581
Morgan: ZH v HS & Ors (Application to Revoke Adoption Order): three groups of revocation cases
Presentation of 3 types of revocation of adoption cases from the UK. A revocation is actually a very late appeal or exercise of inherent jurisdiction. Consequence of revocation: return to status quo ante.
1st type: grave procedural mistakes. Do end in revocations, when procedure is so significantly flawed that it undermines the legitimacy of adoption
2nd type: “ill starred” adoption. Does not often lead to revocation.
3rd type: later evidence shows the threshold was wrong (but no procedural defects). Does not often lead to revocation.
- Morgan, Polly. “ZH v HS & Ors (Application to Revoke Adoption Order): three groups of revocation cases.” Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law (2020): 1-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09649069.2020.1751935
ADDED IN MARCH 2020:
Street-Level Bureaucrats and Ethical Conflicts in Service Provision to Sex Workers – Anasti
Social workers and other service providers are the agents that often have initial contact with sex workers, a highly stigmatized population that has a fraught history with the social work profession. In this paper, I use Lipsky’s theory of street-level bureaucracy and show how social workers use professional discretion when working with this population, even as it might conflict with their personal ethics. Specifically, I focus on the dual service technologies of abstinence and harm reduction, and how service providers have negotiated these technologies in their work with sex workers. In regards to these technologies, I focus on how the emotional and moral discourse surrounding sex work has shaped the response of street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) that work with this population. Using qualitative data from interviews with 29 frontline service providers in a midwestern US state, I argue that these frontline workers use interpersonal modes of discretion to understand ethical conflicts in working with sex trade-involved persons, conflicting with both agency and fieldlevel policy. Implications of this project show how frontline service providers negotiate their responsibilities to this population amidst conflicting personal ethics and service technologies.
- Theresa Anasti (2020) Street-Level Bureaucrats and Ethical Conflicts in Service Provision to Sex Workers, Ethics and Social Welfare, 14:1, 89-104, DOI: 10.1080/17496535.2019.1664608
Outcomes in Adulthood After Long-Term Foster Care: A Sibling Approach
When a child is removed from their home and placed in foster care, society takes over the responsibility for that child’s well-being and development. Failure to provide a child with a nurturing upbringing may have negative consequences for the child as well as for society. Using Swedish longitudinal registry data for a national cohort sample of siblings, in which some were placed in foster care and others remained in their birth parents’ care, this study asks whether long-term foster care ensures improved life chances. Results from multilevel regression analyses of a wide range of educational, social, and health-related outcomes in mature adult age (16 outcome constructs) support a row of previous studies indicating that traditional long-term foster care does not seem to improve maltreated children’s life chances.
- Brännström, L., Vinnerljung, B., & Hjern, A. (2020). Outcomes in Adulthood After Long-Term Foster Care: A Sibling Approach. Child Maltreatment. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559519898755
Finding Keys: A Systematic Review of Barriers and Facilitators for Refugee Children’s Disclosure of Their Life Stories
The systematic review presented in this article aims to reveal what supports and hampers refugee children in telling their, often traumatic, life stories. This is important to ensure that migration decisions are based on reliable information about the children’s needs for protection. A systematic review was conducted in academic journals, collecting all available scientific knowledge about the disclosure of life stories by refugee minors in the context of social work, guardianship, foster care, asylum procedures, mental health assessment, and therapeutic settings. The resulting 39 studies were thoroughly reviewed with reference to what factors aided or hampered the refugee children’s disclosure of their life stories. The main barriers to disclosure were feelings of mistrust and self-protection from the side of the child and disrespect from the side of the host community. The facilitators for disclosing life stories were a positive and respectful attitude of the interviewer, taking time to build trust, using nonverbal methods, providing agency to the children, and involving trained interpreters. Social workers, mentors, and guardians should have time to build trust and to help a young refugee in revealing the life story before the minor is heard by the migration authorities. The lack of knowledge on how refugee children can be helped to disclose their experiences is a great concern because the decision in the migration procedure is based on the story the child is able to disclose.
- van Os, E. C. C. (Carla), Zijlstra, A. E. (Elianne), Knorth, E. J. (Erik), Post, W. J. (Wendy), & Kalverboer, M. E. (Margrite). (2020). Finding Keys: A Systematic Review of Barriers and Facilitators for Refugee Children’s Disclosure of Their Life Stories. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 21(2), 242–260. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838018757748
ADDED IN JANUARY 2020:
Moral stances and moral language in reports investigating child protection in Finland
In 2012, an eight-year-old girl was murdered in Finland by her father and her father’s spouse. The death of this girl, who was already known to child protection services and other support organizations, drew attention to problems in Finland’s child protection system and led to the commissioning of several public investigations. Reports on these investigations were published as separate reports in 2013 and 2014.
This study assessed the moral stances on children taken in three reports through a philosophical analysis of the moral language contained in them. The analysis yielded four themes: children’s voice, rights, a good childhood, and vulnerability. The reports included both explicit and implicit moral stances towards children. Because these reports have an impact on child protection practices, their moral stances on children need to be explicitly studied and discussed.
- Tytti Poikolainen (2020): Moral stances and moral language in reports investigating child protection in Finland, Nordic Social Work Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/2156857X.2019.1710241
The Cumulative Prevalence of Termination of Parental Rights for U.S. Children, 2000–2016
Recent research has used synthetic cohort life tables to show that having a Child Protective Services investigation, experiencing confirmed maltreatment, and being placed in foster care are more common for American children than would be expected based on daily or annual rates for these events. In this article, we extend this literature by using synthetic cohort life tables and data from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System to generate the first cumulative prevalence estimates of termination of parental rights. The results provide support for four conclusions. First, according to the 2016 estimate, 1 in 100 U.S. children will experience the termination of parental rights by age 18. Second, the risk of experiencing this event is highest in the first few years of life. Third, risks are highest for Native American and African American children. Nearly 3.0% of Native American children and around 1.5% of African American children will ever experience this event. Finally, there is dramatic variation across states in the risk of experiencing this event and in racial/ethnic inequality in this risk. Taken together, these findings suggest that parental rights termination, which involves the permanent loss of access to children for parents, is far more common than often thought.
- Wildeman, Christopher, Frank R Edwards, and Sara Wakefield (2019). “The Cumulative Prevalence of Termination of Parental Rights for U.S. Children, 2000-2016.” Child Maltreatment 25.1 (2019): https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559519856435
Sibling Child Protective Services Involvement Following a Child Maltreatment Fatality
Each year in the United States, approximately 1,720 children die from a child maltreatment fatality (CMF). Although many of these children are survived by siblings, few studies have examined the child protective service (CPS) involvement of these siblings. Objective: This study examined CPS involvement of children surviving the CMF of a sibling as well as predictors of subsequent CPS reports. Method: Department of Human Services and Child Death Review Board data about children who died from a CMF during 1993–2003 (n ¼ 416) and their siblings in the state of Oklahoma were used to examine CPS involvement and predictors of subsequent CPS reports for surviving siblings. Results: Surviving siblings of a victim of a CMF experienced substantial CPS involvement; 81% of the original victims had siblings who were subsequently reported to CPS (n ¼ 1,840). Original victim and family characteristics that predicted a greater rate of siblings’ subsequent reports to CPS included younger original victim age, greater number of children in the original victim’s home, and more previous reports of the original victim to CPS. Discussion: A large portion of families with a CMF struggle to adequately care for their surviving children. Such families may need additional support after a CMF.
- Corlis, Mckenna, Amy Damashek, Kate Meister, Hilary Richardson, and Barbara Bonner (2019). “Sibling Child Protective Services Involvement Following a Child Maltreatment Fatality.” Child Maltreatment 25.1 (2019): https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559519848499